SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 JANUARY 2019

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 JANUARY 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 JANUARY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) Analyze the provisions of the anti lynching law of Manipur and how it helps in controlling hate crimes?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the provisions of the anti lynching law brought by Manipur and how it sets an example for the rest of the country. In light of the recent incidents of lynching, the article emphasizes on the need of such a law and how it would help in bringing such criminals to book.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to establish the need of such a law, discuss the key provisions of it and thereafter analyze how this law would help in bringing the perpetrators of such hate crimes to book and the issues involved therein.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the recent incidents of lynching which necessitate such a law.

Body

  • Discuss about the dangers caused by lynching to India’s pluralist social fabric and how such hate crimes need to be curbed.
  • Discuss the directions of supreme court with respect to anti lynching laws – court felt compelled to act in the shadow of four years of surging hate violence targeting religious and caste minorities. It also urged Parliament to consider passing a law to combat mob hate crime.The Union and most State governments have done little to comply with the directions of India’s highest court. But Manipur became the first to pass a remarkable law against lynching.
  • Examine in detail the provisions of the law and the issues involved therein
    • The Manipur law closely follows the Supreme Court’s prescriptions, creating a nodal officer to control such crimes in every State, special courts and enhanced punishments.
    • definition of lynching is comprehensive, covering many forms of hate crimes. These are “any act or series of acts of violence or aiding, abetting such act/acts thereof, whether spontaneous or planned, by a mob on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, language, dietary practices, sexual orientation, political affiliation, ethnicity or any other related grounds
    • However it does not cover individual hate crimes
    • first in the country dealing with the protection and rights of vulnerable populations which creates a new crime of dereliction of duty of public officials. It lays down that “any police officer directly in charge of maintaining law and order in an area, omits to exercise lawful authority vested in them under the law, without reasonable cause, and thereby fails to prevent lynching shall be guilty of dereliction of duty” and will be liable “to punishment of imprisonment of one year, which may extend to three years, and with fine that may extend to fifty thousand rupees”. Etc
  • Discuss the impact of such a law and what more needs to be done by the other states

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward.

Introduction:

                The  country  is  witnessing  a  series  of  incidents  of  lynching  and  targeted  mob  violence  against  vulnerable groups. The causes behind and the threats it impose calls for bringing in an anti-lynching law. Manipur became the first to pass a remarkable law against lynching, late last year.

Body:

Supreme court ruling: Supreme Court — anguished by what it described as ‘horrific acts of mobocracy’ — issued a slew of directions to the Union and State governments to protect India’s ‘pluralist social fabric’ from mob violence. The court felt compelled to act in the shadow of four years of surging hate violence targeting religious and caste minorities. It also urged Parliament to consider passing a law to combat mob hate crime.

Extra information: Supreme Court’s 11-point directions with respect to anti lynching laws:

Preventive:

  • The state governments shall designate a senior police officer in each district for taking measures to prevent incidents of mob violence and lynching.
  • The state governments shall immediately identify districts, sub-divisions and villages where instances of lynching and mob violence have been reported in the recent past.
  • The nodal officers shall bring to the notice of the DGP any inter-district co-ordination issues for devising a strategy to tackle lynching and mob violence related issues.
  • It shall be the duty of every police officer to cause a mob to disperse, which, in his opinion, has a tendency to cause violence in the disguise of vigilantism or otherwise.
  • Central and the state governments should broadcast on radio and television and other media platforms including the official websites that lynching and mob violence shall invite serious consequence.
  • Curb and stop dissemination of irresponsible and explosive messages, videos and other material on various social media platforms. Register FIR under relevant provisions of law against persons who disseminate such messages.

Remedial:

  • Ensure that there is no further harassment of the family members of the victims.
  • State governments shall prepare a lynching/mob violence victim compensation scheme.
  • Cases of lynching and mob violence shall be specifically tried by designated court/fast track courts earmarked for that purpose in each district. The trial shall preferably be concluded within six months.
  • To set a stern example in cases of mob violence and lynching, the trial court must ordinarily award maximum sentence upon conviction of the accused person.

Punitive:

  • If it is found that a police officer or an officer of the district administration has failed to fulfil his duty, it will be considered as an act of deliberate negligence.

Provisions of Manipur’s Anti-lynching law:

  • Comprehensive Definition of Lynching: Definition of lynching is comprehensive, covering many forms of hate crimes. Includes any act or series of acts of violence or aiding, abetting such act/acts thereof, whether spontaneous or planned, by a mob on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, language, dietary practices, sexual orientation, political affiliation, ethnicity or any other related grounds.
  • In tandem with SC directions: The Manipur law closely follows the Supreme Court’s prescriptions, creating a nodal officer to control such crimes in every State, special courts and enhanced punishments.
  • Accountability of Public officials: First in the country dealing with the protection and rights of vulnerable populations which creates a new crime of dereliction of duty of public officials.  This creates a sense of responsibility and public officials act on the basis of “rule of law”.
  • Protection of Victims and witnesses: Increases confidence of the public and bystanders to provide evidence in courts.
  • Better Rehabilitation and Compensation: Relief camps for the displaced, compensation for death of the victims.
  • However it does not cover individual hate crimes.

Impacts of the law:

  • Helps control the mobocracy and safeguard the social fabric of India.
  • The law acts as a deterrent against mob crimes and assures the prevalence of “Rule of Law”.
  • Protects and safeguards the minorities and vulnerable.
  • Prevents a hostile environment against people of the community, who have been lynched.
  • Protection of victims and witnesses against any kind of intimidation, coercion, inducement, violence

Way forward:

  • The term ‘hate crimes’ should also be added as a provision in the comprehensive definition of the “lynching”.
  • Others states’ and centre should follow suit and legislate a law for anti-lynching as per SC directives.
  • Rehabilitation should be done at the ground level to make the victims spring back to normalcy.
  • Measures to curb spreading of fake news on social media should also be looked at parallel.
  • Ensure public officials are faithful to their constitutional responsibilities and victims.

Conclusion:

                Parliament must create a special law against lynching, asserting that “fear of law and veneration for the command of law constitutes the foundation of a civilised society”. Lynching should be nipped in the bud and Manipur has shown the way forward. It has taken the leadership in creating the new India, where every citizen should claim – of safety, fairness and fraternity.


TopicIssues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Human Resources

2) Skill India needs a sharp realignment if it is to meaningfully transform people’s life chances. Discuss. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

It has been 4 years since skill India mission has been launched and the problem that it tried to resolve with respect to employment remains. There is a need to assess the provisions of the skill India mission and discuss the way forward.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to analyze the scope, objective and provisions of the skill India mission, assess its achievement so far and examine whether the mission requires a course correction better achieve its aims. Finally, we need to provide a fair and balanced conclusion and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that it has been 4 years since the mission was introduced and discuss its objectives.

Body

  • Explain the measures taken so far under skill India mission
    • introduced the National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF). This organises all qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude, just like classes in general academic education.
    • Establishes Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) anchoring skill courses
  • Discuss the result of these measures and the reforms required
    • need for more holistic training and the need to re-examine the narrow, short-term NSQF-based NSDC courses to include skills in broader occupation groups, so that trainees are skilled enough to compete at the international level
    • unlike for general academic education, which requires the completion of certain levels of certification before further progression is permitted, there is no clear definition of the course curriculum within the NSQF that enables upward mobility.
    • There is no connection of the tertiary level vocational courses to prior real knowledge of theory or practical experience in a vocational field, making alignment with the NSQF meaningless.
    • Efforts to introduce new Bachelor of Vocation and Bachelor of Skills courses were made, but the alignment of these UGC-approved Bachelor of Vocation courses was half-hearted.
    • There is no real alignment between the Human Resource Development Ministry (responsible for the school level and Bachelor of Vocation courses) and the Ministry of Skill Development (responsible for non-school/non-university-related vocational courses)
  • Discuss the course correction required by bringing out the recommendations of Sharda Prasad committee

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward.

Introduction:

                Skill India mission was launched in 2015 with a target of training and skill development to 400 million by 2022, covering each and every village. The main goal is to create opportunities, space and scope for the development of the talents of the Indian youth. To identify new sectors for skill development. Various schemes are also proposed to achieve this objective.

Body:

Since the inception of Skill India mission, there are many measures taken under it

  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
  • Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
  • Director General of Training – Modular Employable Skills (DGT-MES)
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
  • National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF)
  • National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)
  • National Skill Development Agency
  • Aajeevika – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM)
  • Atal Innovation Mission
  • Startup India

The impacts of the above schemes in the last 4 years are:

  • NSQF recognises prior learning, through which an estimated 20 million school dropouts can get a second chance.
  • There is a substantial increase in the number of people who were skilled in FY17 and FY18. Notably, the rise is phenomenal, it has risen more than four times, from over 3.5 lakh people in FY17 to nearly 16 lakh people in FY18.
  • About 30% of the skilled persons have found jobs under the mission in FY2018.
  • With nearly 55 percent successful placements, the Short-Term Training Program (STT) under PMKVY (2016-20) has successfully trained over 13 lakh candidates.
  • Approximately 76 percent of the candidates have been placed in wage employment and 24 percent placed in self-employment/ entrepreneurship.
  • Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is designed for those who already have a job or are self- employed and require up-skilling and certification for better prospects. Till date, more than 4.5 lakh candidates have been certified under this component of PMKVY (2016-20).

Issues in implementation of Skill India Mission:

  • The targets allocated are very high and without regard to any sectoral requirement. Everybody was chasing numbers without providing employment to the youth or meeting sectoral industry needs.
  • The focus of PMKVY has been largely on the short-term skill courses, resulting in low placements. There has been an over emphasis on this scheme and hence it is seen as the answer to all skill-related issues.
  • The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has pointed out flaws in the design and operations of the NSDC and National Skill Development Fund which has resulted in falling short of skill development goals. Majority of them also could not achieve the placement targets for the trained persons.
  • The Sharada Prasad Committee, held the NSDC responsible for poor implementation of the Standard Training Assessment and Reward (STAR) programme. It highlighted that only 8.5 per cent of the persons trained were able to get employment. That is what has been claimed by NSDC.
  • The Report also cites “serious conflict of interests” in the functioning of the National Skill Development Corporation. NSDC has not been able to discharge its responsibilities for setting up sector skill councils (SSCs) owing to lots of instances of serious conflict of interest and unethical practices.
  • The skilling courses are not in line with the Industrial Revolution 4.0 which is round the corner.
  • There have been apprehensions on how many of the 11.7 million trained in the past two years are really in jobs.

The following reforms required are:

  • Need for Holistic training: need for more holistic training and the need to re-examine the narrow, short-term NSQF-based NSDC courses to include skills in broader occupation groups, so that trainees are skilled enough to compete at the international level.
  • Need for clear demarcations: Unlike for general academic education, which requires the completion of certain levels of certification before further progression is permitted, there is no clear definition of the course curriculum within the NSQF that enables upward mobility.
  • Need for linkage: There is no connection of the tertiary level vocational courses to prior real knowledge of theory or practical experience in a vocational field, making alignment with the NSQF meaningless.
  • Need of Political will: Efforts to introduce new Bachelor of Vocation and Bachelor of Skills courses were made, but the alignment of these UGC-approved Bachelor of Vocation courses was half-hearted.
  • Need for Ministerial Co-ordination: There is no real alignment between the Human Resource Development Ministry (responsible for the school level and Bachelor of Vocation courses) and the Ministry of Skill Development (responsible for non-school/non-university-related vocational courses)
  • Need for incentivization: Incentivise employers to offer apprentice schemes that ensure skill training programmes are in sync with industry’s requirements.
  • Need for survey: Indian government needs to conduct surveys, once every five years, through the National Sample Survey Office to collect data on skill providers and skill gaps by sector. Such data can guide evidence-based policy-making.
  • Sharada Prasad committee recommendations:
    • Create a sound and well defined National Vocational Education and Training System of the country which should ensure the following::-
      • At the secondary school level, the children should be sensitized about the dignity of labour, world of work and career options but vocational education and training should start only after 10 years of schooling which is the case in most of the developed world.
      • Every child should be given an option to go for higher vocational education and training.
    • Create National Labour Market Information System, National Occupational Standards, National Competency Standards, National Training Standards, National Accreditation Standards, National Assessment Standards and National Certification Standards and align them to the International Standards.
    • Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship should become the owner of all National Vocational Education and Training Standards and get them developed though intense industry involvement.
    • Set up state of the art Vocational Education and Training Colleges to impart vocational education and training with a clear objective of meeting the skills needs of the industry and providing employment to youth.
    • In-plant apprenticeship training should be made an integral part of the Vocational Education and Training for all trainees.
    • The industry must come together to contribute towards a National Skill Development Fund.
    • All diploma colleges and ITIs should be renamed as VETCs and their capacities should be enhanced to about 500 trainees per annum.
    • There should be one Skill Development Centre (SDC) in a cluster of about 10-12 villages, which would provide skills to the youth so that they can access employment opportunities in the local economy.
    • The state of Gujarat has already set up a good number of such SDCs called Kaushal Vardhan Kendras which are doing excellent work.
    • The two existing Acts i.e. Apprentices Act, 1961 and The Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959 should be repealed and a new Vocational Education and Training Act (VETA) should be enacted.

Conclusion:

India is one of the youngest nations. Its median age is 27.3. As India aims to have one of the strongest economic growth stories in the 21st century, it becomes vital for it ensure it growing workforce is capable to handle the incoming disruptions and find suitable jobs. Skill development holds the key to India’s future as a globally competitive economy and the demographic dividend it hopes to reap.

Case Study: India could learn a lesson from Germany, which imparts skills in just 340 occupation groups. Vocational education must be imparted in broadly defined occupational skills, so that if job descriptions change over a youth’s career, she is able to adapt to changing technologies and changing job roles.


Topic– India and its neighbourhood- relations

3) Examine why has SAARC failed to perform its role as an integrator and address areas of common interests?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain status quo with respect to SAARC, analyze the reasons for its abject failure , the impact of poor performance of SAARC in achieving regional aspirations. Discuss alternatives to SAARC which India can leverage for boosting regional integration and development.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about SAARC and the status quo of SAARC.

Body

  • Discuss the reasons why issues cropped up in SAARC.
    • Asymmetry in the members
    • India Pakistan tension
    • Individual identities of nation are still strong and they are not willing to subsume that in collective identities
    • Failure of SAFTA etc
  • Discuss the common interests that could have been attained through a regional organization like SAARC.
  • Highlight that India is looking at other options to regional integration apart from SAARC such a BIMSTEC etc to achieve such regional aspirations.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

Introduction:

                 SAARC was set up in 1985 and today it has 8 members: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Srilanka. Afghanistan joined SAARC only in 2007. SAARC member nations cooperate on a range of issues from agriculture, economy, poverty alleviation, S&T and culture to encourage people to people contact.

Body:

SAARC aims at integration of south Asian nations for undertaking collective efforts to achieve common objective of regional stability and prosperity. Despite geographical contiguity and historical and cultural links, the SAARC region remains the most disconnected regions in the world.

SAARC has failed in achieving its objectives because:

  • India-Pakistan rivalry: This has become a bottleneck in achieving effective coordination. India has conveyed that terrorism and talks cannot go on simultaneously.
  • Bilateral issues: Long pending issues between members like fishermen issue between India and Srilanka, Teesta water sharing between India and Bangladesh, lack of direct access to Afghanistan to other members except Pakistan have restricted in arriving at common ground for regional integration.
  • Perceived Big-Brother attitude of India: Asymmetry in the region due to sheer size of Indian economy and stature in international arena requires India to play an over active role. However, this is perceived as big brother attitude by other members creating mistrust.
  • Internal Crises: Almost every member is facing numerous internal crises like Tamils issue in Srilanka, Constitutional crisis in Nepal, religious fundamentalism in Pakistan and Bangladesh, Terrorism and instability in Afghanistan. Consequently, there is no much enthusiasm to achieve collaboration in the sub continent.
  • China’s inroad into SAARC countries: Increasing presence of china in the region and reservations of India with China is creating roadblocks. India cannot match the levels of financing by China. China with its grand plan of BRI has lured the small nations.
  • Poverty- Ridden: Even though the region accounts for 21% of world population, its share in global GDP is just around 3%. Being one of the poverty ridden areas of the world, there is limited avenues to achieve synergy.

The recent issues which highlight the growing redundancy of SAARC in terms of achieving its stated objectives as well as India’s national interests are:

  • SAARC summit scheduled in Islamabad in 2016 was cancelled due to continued support of terrorism by Pakistan. The other nations like Bhutan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan also reiterated the same view.
  • A meeting between the foreign ministers of India and Pakistan was scheduled on sidelines of UNGA last year. Within 24 hours after announcing talks, India chose to pull out.
  • Pakistan’s decision not to sign agreements on regional connectivity at the Kathmandu summit in 2014. Last minute pulling out of Bhutan from BBIN agreement.
  • Sri Lanka has begun to describe itself as an Indian Ocean country. It is merely rediscovering its geographic centrality in the Indian Ocean and celebrating it.
  • Maldives, too, has so much to gain by leveraging its Indian Ocean location rather than pin its hopes on the dystopian SAARC.
  • Increasing sway of China by signing FTA’s, leasing out land for infrastructure projects has affected Indian interests and SAARC as an organization.

Way forward for India to better realise its strategic and economic interests in South Asia are:

  • BIMSTEC is seen as complimentary for various initiatives of India like forming a bridge between ASEAN and India, new found concept of Indo-pacific, neighbourhood first policy.
  • As the largest bay in the world, Bay of Bengal is a pivot for BIMSTEC countries. Their combined GDP — at 2.85 trillion US Dollars — and one of the largest combined population in the world, gives BIMSTEC an inherent advantage.
  • India’s Trilateral highway project all the way to Cambodia will further strengthen the connectivity with South East Asian nations.
  • The BBIN Motor Vehicle Agreement will help in connectivity, economic development and regional integration. This will also help in the development of North-East India, which has hitherto been neglected.
  • Focus on SASEC which is SAARC minus Pakistan;
  • The RCEP initiative will form a bigger regional and economic entity, thus strengthening our Act East policy.
  • The informal QUAD grouping with USA, Japan and Australia and increased focus on Indo-Pacific region must be leveraged to counter to Chinese hegemony in South Asian region.

Conclusion:

                Geographies are not static; they evolve, sometimes slowly and quickly at others. How we imagine and construct regions changes according to circumstances. India must look at her national interests and strategic autonomy. In the process, she can take along the likeminded neighbours together.


Topic: India and its neighbourhood- relations

4) India has often been accused of playing the role of a big brother in its neighbourhood. Evaluate whether this is true. (250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first bring out the criticism often resorted to by India’s neighbours such as Nepal, Sri Lanka etc of India acting as a big brother. Discuss the reasons why such a view is held by these countries and thereafter delve deep into India’s actions with respect to its neighbours to evaluate whether these claims are actually true.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that India’s neighbours have often called out India for its big brotherly attitude.

Body

  • Discuss the reasons why such a charge is levelled against India – you can point out the recent standoff in Nepal wrt Madhesi agitation, charges that India interferes in the domestic policies of the country, the disproportionate size and power of India in comparison to her neighbours
  • Highlight what India’s policies with respect to her neighbours has been – you can talk about the gujral doctrine and how that doctrine governs India’s foreign policy in her neighbourhood.
  • Bring out the instances which counter the claim that India acts as a big brother
    • Talk about the indus water treaty with Pakistan
    • Sharing of water with bangladesh
    • treaty of peace and friendship with Nepal and Bhutan etc
  • Discuss what India needs to do to see correct these perceptions

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward.

Introduction:

India is a huge in terms of geographical size, economic and military might vis-à-vis its neighbours. India’s relations with its smaller neighbours have been showing signs of stress due to changing geo-political situations. Consequently, India is criticized as ‘big brother’, ‘bully’, a common thread seen across neighbours.

Body:

The reasons for levelling such charges against India are:

  • The recent issue of trade blockade in Nepal which led to allegation that they were India sponsored event.
  • Nepal also accuses India for meddling in its domestic politics like support to Madhesis.
  • The human assistance and disaster relief efforts during Nepal earthquake were branded as ‘media photo-ops’.
  • The charges that India interferes in the domestic policies of the country. Example: The Tamil liberation issue in North Jaffna region was seen as interference by Srilankan govt.
  • India’s support to UNHCR resolution against the war-crimes was seen as a move against Srilanka.
  • The inaction of Pakistan and Myanmar against terrorist breeding grounds in PoK and Manipur borders led to surgical strikes. This was considered as an attack on sovereignty.

India’s policies toward her neighbours have been guided by the principles of Panchasheel (Non-interference in others internal affairs and respect for each other’s territorial unity integrity and sovereignty).

More recently, India also came up with the Gujral doctrine, which has been leading the relations with our neighbours. The “Gujral Doctrine” sought to end India’s endless contestations with neighbours and offered to walk the extra mile in resolving longstanding problem. This doctrine basically projected India as a benign big brother so that peace can be maintained. As a benign big brother, India would give concessions to all except Pakistan without any reciprocal return expectation. It was of non-reciprocal accommodation of India’s neighbours.

                India’s foreign policy has aimed at helping the neighbours and a peaceful co-existence as evident through the following instances.

  • The Indus water treaty with Pakistan where water of three rivers are shared with Pakistan.
  • Sharing of Ganga Water with Bangladesh: It is in pursuance of this policy that late in 1996 India concluded an agreement with Bangladesh on sharing of Ganga Waters.
  • The Treaty of peace and friendship with Nepal and Bhutan and providing them economic opportunities in India, port access for their trade etc.
  • The recent exchange of islands with Bangladesh under the 100th Constitutional Amendment Act.
  • Economic aid in the form of soft loans, grants to Nepal, Bhutan, Afghanistan. Construction of infrastructure projects like Salma Dam, Parliament house in Afghanistan, Highways in Bhutan.
  • India Technical and economic cooperation program has benefited thousands of students and professionals in Srilanka, Nepal, Bangladesh.
  • Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations in exigencies like Nepal earthquake, Tsunami affected Srilanka, Floods in Pakistan and Bangladesh, Drinking water crisis in Maldives.

Way Forward:

  • India being a dominant economy, making unilateral concessions can help to build trust. Thus, implementing Gujral doctrine in its true letter and spirit.
  • Low hanging fruits like Power sharing, infrastructure projects to improve connectivity and better people to people contact in the subcontinent will bring neighbours closer.
  • Bilateral issues like Maritime boundary issues with Sri Lanka need to be resolved to address fishermen issue, Teesta water sharing between India and Bangladesh should be resolved with consistent talks at high levels.
  • Border disputes with Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and strengthening of the security to curb terrorism and drug menace leads to healthy economies.
  • Resurrection of SAARC, BIMSTEC etc. which can lead to better regional integration and increased trust.
  • ‘Confidence Building Measures’ should be taken up to reduce animosity and increase friendly relations with neighbours.

Conclusion:

India has been active proponent of strong South Asia. However, there are aspersions by neighbours which has led to soured relations. Increased engagement with mutual support can help South Asia be more integrated and a developed region. The neighbourhood first policy should be continued to implement in its full force.


Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

5) Even though India is a lucrative destination for technology companies, its uniqueness offers several challenges to them. Comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

As India becomes increasingly digital and its population grows gradually, it is poised to become the top destination/ focus of intention of technology companies. However, India also poses several unique challenges to such companies. It is therefore essential to discuss thise opportunities and challenges.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the Indian society and economy in general and express our opinion as to how although it is a lucrative destination for technology companies, it poses several unique challenges to them.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about India. E,g mention the population size, growth predictions and also the size of the economy and its growth predictions.

Body-

  1. Discuss how India is an important and lucrative destination for tech companies. E.g
  • Burgeoning population.
  • Growing online presence of the population.
  • Governments stress on adoption of technology- Digital India.
  • Skilled workforce.
  • A huge and growing digital market etc.
  1. Discuss the challenges posed by it. E.g
  • Rural India- which demands applications and technologies to be compatible with local languages, low economic status of the people and low costs.
  • Urban India- which demands adherence to privacy concerns, protection of the content and platforms from nefarious groups/ persons etc.
  • Populism- which can lead to sudden and unexpected policy decisions.
  • Protectionism- in various forms like the one provided to domestic industry etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

        A World Bank report 2017 revealed that India emerged as the world’s sixth largest economy surpassing France. It is soon expected to overtake England as fifth largest. India improved 65 notches to 77th position in World Bank’s Ease of Doing business report. Favourable demographics such as a high population and a catching up on per capita GDP will benefit the country.

Body:

India is an important and lucrative destination for technological companies due to the following reasons:

  • Burgeoning population
    • Rising affluence will make India the third-largest consumer market by 2025, making it imperative for companies to adapt their business models for meeting the changing customer needs. Consumption expenditure will increase three times to hit $ 4 trillion by 2025, according to a report by the Boston Consulting Group.
  • Growing online presence of the population
    • IAMAI report, 2018 data says that Urban India with an estimated population of 455 million already has 295 million using the internet. Rural India has only 186 million internet users. The numbers are expected to reach 500 million soon.
  • Governments stress on adoption of technology- Digital India
    • Indian government’s initiative of Digital India to revolutionize the ICT is a welcome step. The programs of connecting every Gram panchayat with internet under BharatNet and mobile connection will strengthen the competition for tech industries.
  • Skilled workforce
    • With young workforce and continuing policy reform, India has not only emerged as the fastest-growing economy, but its stars also shine bright amid the current global gloom.
    • About 400 million strong workforce between the age group of 21-40 is ready to make India the labour capital of world.
  • A huge and growing digital market
    • The digital marketing industry is seeing an exponential rise in India. It is evident both from statistical figures and otherwise. With e-commerce businesses expanding, it is but natural that the digital marketing industry is also growing. Global players like Walmart, Amazon and indigenous players like Flipkart are setting the platform for digital market.

On the flipside, there are many challenges too which the companies face

  • Rural India: There are language barriers which demands applications and technologies to be compatible with local languages, poor socio- economic conditions leading to unaffordability, inaccessibility of technology. As a result, the companies are forced to recover low costs.
  • Urban India: The rising demands of adherence to privacy concerns especially after the Facebook data breach episode. The Right to privacy, now a fundamental right, is also bolstering the privacy concerns. The poor data protection standards leading to illegal sale of personal data are few of the problems. Security breaches as seen during the Wannacry ransomware where more than 1.5 lakh computers were affected in India. Hacking of about 32 lakh credit and debit cards of major banks of India are rising concerns.
  • Populism: The Government of the day which formulates policies are always in favour of voters. This is a rising concern as it leads to unpredictable and unfavourable policies to companies. Example: the recent changes to e-Commerce rules where companies were set limits on their warehouse capacity, thereby affecting their business models.
  • Protectionism: In the current global scenario of protectionism and deglobalization, there is a rising demand for supporting the domestic industry. This has increased the fears of the global players. Example: IPR rights issue due to evergreening and compulsory licensing. WTO dispute between India and USA over the solar panels procurement.

Way forward:

  • There is a need to improve the employability of Indian youth by better skill training and knowledge in latest technologies.
  • Clear policies to improve the ease of doing business and reduced litigations.
  • Government should come up with a strong and effective data protection law to safeguard the people’s rights.
  • Efforts to reduce the digital divide should be accelerated. Digital Education initiative like Digital Saksharatha Abhiyan must be promoted to nook and corner of India to digitally empower the citizens.

Conclusion:

        India is a lucrative market for the technical companies. There is a need to overcome the above challenges to reap the benefits. Policies to strengthen and give equal space and developmental opportunities for India n firms should also be looked at.


Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

6) 2018 was the sixth warmest year on record, a result of the global warming trend. Discuss in the context of India.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

India with its huge population and imperative development needs is placed in a precarious situation. In this context it is important to discuss the intensity and severity of climate change being witnessed in the country.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the global warming and associated effects being witnessed in India. We have to present some statistics related to the previous year in order to present an overall picture.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  global warming being witnessed these years. E.g According to the IMD, 11 of the 15 warmest years were during the recent past fifteen years (2004-18).

Body-

Discuss further about the global warming being witnessed in India. E.g

  • The rate of increase of temperatures over India is almost similar to the global average.
  • With the increase in temperatures, more and more extreme weather events are expected to be experienced.
  • During 2018, the IMD said the annual mean surface air temperature averaged over the country was +0.410°C above the 1981-2010 average.
  • However, this was “substantially lower” than the highest warming observed over India in 2016, which was +0.720°C.
  • The winter and pre-monsoon seasons, with an anomaly of +0.590°C and +0.550°C respectively, “mainly contributed to this warming” seen in 2018.
  • “Mean temperature during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons (with anomaly of +0.260°C, and +0.310°C respectively) were also above normal.
  • Temperatures are increasing during both day and night time. Heat waves are increasing in frequency as well as magnitude.”
  • As a consequence, “extreme rainfall and rainstorms which can cause floods are increasing. Dry spell duration is also increasing”.
  • Apart from the six cyclonic storms that formed over the northern Indian Ocean, India experienced several “high impact weather” events.
  • These were extremely heavy rainfall, heat and cold waves, snowfall, thunderstorms, dust storms, lightning and floods.
  • “Uttar Pradesh was the most adversely affected state during the year which reported near 600 deaths due to cold waves, thunderstorm, dust storm, lightning and floods.
  • Flood and heavy rain related incidents reportedly claimed over 800 lives from different parts of the country  etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

        In its latest report, on ‘Climate of India’, India Meteorological Department (IMD), stated that while 2016 was the warmest, 11 out of the 15 warmest years have so far all been within the last 15 years (2004-18). Floods triggered by heavy rains took more than 800 lives across states in 2018, which was the sixth warmest year on record, raising concerns over the increasing human cost of climate change.

Body:

        The increase in temperatures (Global warming) is likely to lead to more extreme weather events across India. The trends of global warming being witnessed in India are:

  • IMD also noted that the rate of increase of temperatures over India is almost similar to the global average.
  • The annual mean land-surface air temperature for the country was +0.41°C above the 1981-2010 average, showing an increasing warming trend.
  • The global warming has in turn triggered many weather events like floods and heavy rain (seen in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Odisha), Lightning and Thunderstorms (Uttarpradesh), Heat Waves ( Central India and Telangana),Dust Storms ( Rajasthan) and Snow Avalanche and Cold waves (J&K, UP, Delhi, Punjab, Haryana).
  • The five warmest years on record in order are 2016 (+0.7 °C), 2009 (+0.56°C), 2017 (+0.5°C), 2010 (+0.54°C) and 2015 (+0.42°C) ever since the nation-wide records commenced in 1901.
  • Uttar Pradesh was the most affected by extreme-weather events, reporting 600 deaths due to cold waves, thunderstorms, dust storms, lightning and floods.
  • The coastal regions bore the brunt of as many as seven cyclonic storms that formed over the north Indian Ocean last year. This was attributed to increased Sea Surface Temperature.
  • The anomaly in winter temperatures (+0.59°C) and those of the pre-monsoon (+0.55°C) season contributed to this warming.
  • Kerala floods were due to unusually heavy rains and are very rare over Kerala, which is not conventionally flood prone. The thunderstorm activity also was unique due to prolonged days of activity and severity.
  • Temperatures are increasing during both day and night time.
  • According to a Quartz report, heat-waves have increased in duration. Global warming could further increase both their frequency as well as intensity. This would, in turn, pose a threat to public health.
  • High-velocity dust storms and thunderstorms seen in North India in April and May last year and then, later in June-July.
  • The effects of climate change are also harming the health of agricultural crops. The agriculture ministry recently said that the wheat production in India will decrease by 6-23% by 2050. The production of maize, paddy, sorghum, mustard, potato, cotton and coconut are also likely to be affected.
  • Two Thirds of Glaciers in the Hindu Kush Himalaya Could Melt by 2100. About 15% has already melted due to Global Warming. This was further aggravate weather events in the Northern Indian region.

Conclusion:

Global Warming has the capability of triggering many other weather events. IMD predicts that the impact is getting more and more severe. India has been witnessing increased instances of such events causing great harm to people and resources. There is a need to mitigate the global warming as it impacts the developing nations more strongly.


Topic– Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions;

7) What are the factors influencing ethical behaviour. Discuss.(250 words)

Lexicon Ethics; Ethics and Human Interface

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the factors that influence ethical behaviour of a person, system and society.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about ethics. E.g briefly define what ethics means- Ethics is a set of standards that a society places on itself and which helps guide behaviour, choices and actions.

Body-

Discuss in points the factors which influence ethical/ unethical behaviour. E.g

  • Individual personality traits: individual value system, upbringing, education, religious beliefs, experiences, etc,
  • Culture/country of an individual.
  • Organisation/industry: prevailing ethics of the organisation/ industry an individual works for.
  • The levels of ethics in governance are dependent on the social, economic, political, cultural, legal- judicial and historical contexts of the country.
  • These specific factors influence ethics in public administrative systems.
  • Ethics, whether in an entire society, or in a social sub-system, evolves over a long period of time etc.

Also give appropriate and innovative examples to explain your answer in a more lucid way.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

        Ethics is a code of honour that individuals live by. These moral principles help them to deal with right and wrong in human conduct.  Ethical behaviour is acting in ways consistent with what society and individuals typically think are good values.

The factors that define ethical behaviours are diverse, but all factors unite when a person makes a final decision on how to act. While the reasons are diverse, they are not difficult to understand.

Body:

What defines ethical from unethical behaviour can be formed in early childhood and carry through to adulthood. The factors influencing ethical behaviour are:

  • Individual personality traits: An individual’s values and morals will also influence his or her ethical standards.
    • Example: King Ashoka was a compassionate ruler after the Kalinga war and this was evident in his treatment of his subjects.
  • Family influences: Individuals start to form ethical standards as children in response to their perception of their parent’s behaviour and are likely to adopt high ethical standards if they see that their family members adhere to high ethical standard.
    • Example: The respect given to female members of family will be imbibed in the minds of the children. They treat other women in the same way.
  • Peer influences: Peers are colleagues who are always around us in conducting our daily work. The behaviours and attitudes of peers influence an individual’s decisions in their life.
    • Example: A person learns to be industrious when he sees his colleague being felicitated for the good work.
  • Life experiences: Individual’s life experiences analyze key ethical concepts such as “right”, “wrong,” and “permissible.” It lets us explores possible sources of moral obligation such as God, human reason, or the desire to be happy. It seeks to establish principles of right behaviour that may serve as action guides for individuals and groups.
    • Example: Dr. Ambedkar’s school experiences made him strong enough to fight against the heinous treatment meted out to untouchables and lower caste people.
  • Social Norms or Culture: The culture or social norms, in which an individual is based, influence one’s ethical decisions or behaviour. All cultures differ in values and morals. What may be ethical in one culture may not be ethical in other countries.
    • Example: In western culture, one may walk into place of worship with their footwear, but the same is offensive in temples in India.
  • Legal Interpretations or Laws: The need to control, legislate and regulate, the ethical conduct at the government, individual, and corporate levels has its roots back to the ancient world.
    • Example: one of the earliest law codes developed, the Code of Hammurabi, made Bribery a crime in Babylon during the eighteenth century B.C.;  Shariat law is the code which guides many Islamic nations.
  • Personalities or Luminaries: The life of Great personalities is a source of ethics. They are treasure trove of lessons for leading the life for normal beings.
    • Example: Swami Vivekananda’s life teaches the value of brotherhood, dedication in work, destruction of individualism, unity and equality of all religions. His ethics is as relevant today as it was before due to its practical nature and in today’s scenario all over the world we need it more than anything else, due to increasing terrorism and hatred.

Conclusion:

        Ethics, whether in an entire society, or in a social sub-system, evolves over a long period of time. Different institutions impact the ethical behaviour of individuals in different manner. Thus, value based education, good governance, self-realization, just laws, code of ethics and code of conducts are essential to build an ethically just society and state.


Topic– Human Values.

8) What do you understand by intrinsic and extrinsic values. Discuss.(250 words)

Lexicon Ethics; Ethics and Human Interface

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and scope of internal values as well as external values.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Write a few introductory lines about the  meaning and scope of values. E.g Values are the individual principles or qualities that guide judgement and behaviour of a person or a group. Values can be viewed from the standpoint of their importance. All values are experiences of different degrees of importance in the development of individuality.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the intrinsic values. E.g
  • An intrinsic value is one which has worth in its own right.
  • It is an End- in-itself.
  • Truth, Beauty, Goodness, Temperance, Courage, etc. are considered as intrinsic values.
  • They are good not because of their consequences but because they are good in themselves etc.
  1. DIscuss about the extrinsic values. E.g
  • An Extrinsic value is one which is a means to some other value.
  • It is of instrumental worth only.
  • Extrinsic or Instrumental values are the part of larger whole. They are means to an End.
  • Wealth,Fame, physical fitness, etc. borrow their worth from something extraneous to them etc.

Also mention that the terms Extrinsic and Intrinsic are used relatively. They are not always mutually exclusive or fixed. What is valued by one person for its own sake may be valued by another person as a means to an end.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

        Values are individual beliefs that motivate people to act one way or another. They serve as a guide for human behaviour. Generally, people are predisposed to adopt the values that they are raised with. All values are experiences of different degrees of importance in the development of individuality.

Body:

        People tend to believe that those values are “right” because they are the values of their particular culture. Ethical decision-making often involves weighing values against each other and choosing which values to elevate.

Intrinsic Values:

  • The values that something has “in itself,” or “for its own sake,” or “as such,” or “in its own right.”
  • They are an End- in-itself. Utilitarian philosophers like John Stuart Mill claim that pleasure and happiness are valuable in and of themselves. Immanuel Kant holds that genuinely moral actions are intrinsically valuable.
  • They are good not because of their consequences but because they are good in themselves.
  • A value in which there is no expectation of a result for any action of a person.
  • Intrinsic values are not justified with reference to any values except possibly themselves.
  • Love, happiness, Truth, Beauty, Goodness, Temperance, Courage, Benevolence are considered as intrinsic values.
  • Acts like volunteering because you like to do an activity, Mother Teresa’s benevolent work towards the lepers, soldiers going beyond call of duty during natural disasters are acts due to intrinsic values of a person.

Extrinsic Values:

  • The values which are a means to some other value. Value is assigned by external factors.
  • It is of instrumental worth only.
  • Extrinsic or Instrumental values are the part of larger whole. They are means to an End.
  • Extrinsic values motivates a person’s behaviour or perform a activity to gain a reward or a punishment.
  • Money, Wealth, Fame, objects, physical fitness, etc. borrow their worth from something extraneous to them etc.
  • Acts like studying to get a rank or job, helping others to get featured in society are acts which have extrinsic value.

Within every moral theory, there are both intrinsic and extrinsic values. Further the classification is based on many other factors like culture of the society, upbringing of a person, etc making them subjective. They are not always mutually exclusive or fixed. What is valued by one person for its own sake may be valued by another person as a means to an end.

      For example, for some people, their nation’s flag may represent a sacred value. But for others, the flag may just be a piece of cloth.

Conflicts can result when people have different values, leading to a clash of preferences and priorities.

Conclusion:

So, whether values are sacred, have intrinsic worth, or are a means to an end, values vary among individuals and across cultures and time. Both intrinsic and extrinsic values are needed to guide individuals and a society. However, values are universally recognized as a driving force in ethical decision-making.